Steven S. Segal, PhD

Steven S. Segal, PhD

Medical Pharmacology and Physiology

Curators Distinguished Professor
Chancellor's Professor of Research Excellence
Margaret Proctor Mulligan Professorship in Medical Research



Research in the Segal laboratory centers on understanding blood flow regulation as exemplified by skeletal muscle in response to exercise. Studies have centered on elucidating the nature of signaling between skeletal muscle fibers and microvessels as well as between microvascular endothelium and smooth muscle cells in light of how these interactions are modulated by autonomic, sensory and somatic innervation. Ascending vasodilation describes the ability of signals initiated within the smallest microvessels (capillaries and terminal arterioles) to spread upstream into arteriolar networks and feed arteries that control the distribution and magnitude of tissue blood flow. Defining the morphology and physiology of microvascular networks is now being applied towards understanding how myofibers, microvessels, and peripheral nerves interact during regeneration and reinnervation following acute injury. Current studies focus on how “crosstalk” between these critical components of intact skeletal muscle affect each other’s ability to recover structure and function. Complementary studies center on understanding how vascular smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells of the vascular wall are differentially protected from acute oxidative stress in light of their ability to adapt to chronic oxidative stress, as occurs during advanced age or consuming a  western-style diet. Gaining new insight into cellular mechanisms of regeneration and survival will translate into improving the ability to restore and protect tissue blood flow, organ function, and the quality of life in patients following traumatic injury.

Microcirculation Laboratory

Academic Information

Curators Distinguished Professor
Chancellor's Professor of Research Excellence
Margaret Proctor Mulligan Professorship in Medical Research


1 Hospital Drive
MA415 Hospital Drive
Columbia, MO 65212
United States

P. 573-882-2553

Research Interests

  • Skeletal muscle injury and regeneration
  • Microvascular injury and resilience to oxidative stress
  • Mechanisms of blood flow regulation
  • Microcirculation during aging

Areas of Expertise

  • Microcirculation
  • Skeletal muscle physiology
  • Cardiovascular physiology
  • Exercise physiology

Education & Training


1987, Microcirculation, University of Virginia

Post-Graduate School

1984, PhD (Education/Kinesiology and Physiology), University of Michigan; 1978, MA (Exercise Physiology), University of California Berkeley

Awards & Honors

  • Postdoctoral Mentor Award, University of Missouri Graduate School (04/2019)
  • Benjamin W. Zweifach, Award, World Congress for Microcirculation (09/2018)
  • Curators' Distinguished Professor (2017)
  • Eugene M. Landis Award, the Microcirculatory Society, Inc. (2016)
  • Excellence in Trainee Research Mentoring Award, MU School of Medicine (2015)
  • Chancellor’s Professor of Research Excellence, University of Missouri (2013)
  • Malpighi Award, European Society for Microcirculation (2013)
  • Method to Extend Research in Time (MERIT) Award, NHLBI, NIH (2008)
  • Margaret Proctor Mulligan Professorship in Medical Research, MU (2008)
  • President, the Microcirculatory Society, Inc. USA (2008-09)
  • Fellow, Council on Basic Cardiovascular Sciences, AHA (2001)
  • Established Investigator Award, American Heart Association (1998)
  • Fellow, Cardiovascular Section, American Physiological Society (1996)
  • Fellow, American College of Sports Medicine (1989)

Professional Societies

  • North American Vascular Biology (NAVBO; 1994 - present)
  • European Society for Microcirculation (ESM; 1990 - present)
  • The Microcirculatory Society, Inc. USA (MCS; 1985 - present)
  • American Physiological Society (APS; 1985 - present)


  • Morton AB, Jacobsen NL and Segal SS.
    Functionalizing biomaterials to promote neurovascular regeneration following skeletal muscle injury.
    Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 320: C1099-C1111, 2021. DOI 10.1152/ajpcell.00501.2020   PMID: 33852364
  • Shaw RL, Norton CE and Segal SS.
    Apoptosis in resistance arteries induced by hydrogen peroxide: greater resilience of endothelium vs. smooth muscle.
    Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 320: H1625-H1633, 2021.  PMID: 33606587 DOI: 10.1152/ajpheart.00956.2020
  • Boerman EM and Segal SS.
    Aging alters spontaneous and neurotransmitter-mediated Ca2+ signaling in smooth muscle cells of mouse mesenteric arteries.
    Microcirculation. 2020;27:e12607. DOI: 10.1111/micc.12607 PMID: 31994289
  • Norton CE, Jacobsen NL, Sinkler SY, Manrique CM and Segal SS.
    Female sex and Western-style diet protect mouse resistance arteries during acute oxidative stress.
    Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 318: C627-C639, 2020. DOI: 10.1152/ajpcell.00342.2019  PMC7099517
  • Morton AB, Norton CE, Jacobsen NL, Fernando CA, Cornelison DDW and Segal SS.
    Barium chloride injures myofibers through calcium-induced proteolysis with fragmentation of motor nerves and microvessels.
    Skeletal Muscle 2019 Nov 6;9(1):27. DOI: 10.1186/s13395-019-0213-2 PMC6833148
  • Norton CE, Sinkler SY, Jacobsen NL and Segal SS.
    Advanced age protects resistance arteries of mouse skeletal muscle from oxidative stress through attenuating apoptosis induced by hydrogen peroxide.
    J Physiol 597.15: 3801-3816, 2019. DOI: 10.1113/JP278255  PMID: 31213466
  • Fernando CA, Pangan AM, Cornelison DDW and Segal SS.
    Recovery of blood flow regulation in microvascular resistance networks during regeneration of mouse gluteus maximus muscle.
    J Physiol 597.5: 1401-1407, 2019. DOI: 10.1113/JP277247  PMC6395473
  • Boerman EM, Sen S, Shaw RL, Joshi T and Segal SS.
    Gene expression profiles of ion channels and receptors in mouse resistance arteries: effects of cell type, vascular bed and age.
    Microcirculation 2018;e12452.  DOI: 10.1111/micc.12452   PMC5949082
  • Behringer EJ, Scallan JP, Jafarnejad M, Castorena Gonzalez JA, Moore Jr. JE, Davis MJ and Segal SS.
    Calcium and electrical dynamics in lymphatic endothelium.
    J Physiol 595.24: 7347-7368, 2017. DOI:  10.1113/JP274842  PMC5730853
  • Sinkler SY and Segal SS.
    Rapid versus slow ascending vasodilatation: Intercellular conduction versus flow-mediated signalling with tetanic versus rhythmic muscle contractions.
    J Physiol 595.23: 7149-7165, 2017.  DOI: 10.1113/JP275186  PMC5709335
  • Boerman EM, Everhart JE and Segal SS.
    Advanced age decreases local calcium signaling in endothelium of mouse mesenteric arteries in vivo.
    Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 310: H1091-H1096, 2016. PMC4867392
  • Behringer EJ and Segal SS.
    Membrane potential governs calcium influx into microvascular endothelium: Integral role for muscarinic receptor activation.
    J Physiol 293.20: 4531-4548, 2015. PMC26260126
  • Segal, SS.
    Integration and Modulation of Intercellular Signalling Underlying Blood Flow Control.
    J Vasc Res 52:136-157, 2015. PMC4670584
  • Socha MJ, Boerman EM, Behringer EJ, Shaw RL, Domeier TL and Segal SS.
    Advanced age protects microvascular endothelium from aberrant Ca2+ influx and cell death induced by hydrogen peroxide.
    J Physiol 593.9: 2155–2169, 2015. PMC4422569
  • Behringer EJ, Shaw RL, Socha MJ, W and Segal SS.
    Aging impairs electrical conduction along endothelium of resistance arteries through enhanced Ca2+-activated K+ channel activation.
    Arterio Thromb Vasc Biol  33:1892-1901, 2013. PMC3769416
  • Behringer EJ and Segal SS.
    Tuning electrical conduction along endothelium of resistance arteries through Ca2+-activated K+ channels.
    Circ Res 110:1311-1321, 2012. PMC3467972
  • Correa D and Segal SS.
    Neurovascular proximity in the diaphragm muscle of adult mice.
    Microcirculation 19: 306–315, 2012. PMC3336045
  • Bagher P, Davis MJ and Segal SS.
    Visualizing calcium responses to acetylcholine convection along endothelium of arteriolar networks in Cx40BAC GCaMP2 transgenic mice.
    Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 301:H794-H802, 2011. PMC3191093
  • Socha MJ, Hakim CH, Jackson WF and Segal SS.
    Temperature effects on morphological integrity and Ca2+ signaling in freshly isolated murine feed artery endothelial cell tubes.
    Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 301:H773-H783, 2011. PMC3191091

Find a complete list of Dr. Segal's publications